I."Lithium battery" is a kind of battery made of lithium metal or lithium alloy as the anode material and using non-aqueous electrolyte solution. In 1912, lithium metal battery was first proposed and studied by Gilbert n. Lewis. In the 1970s, M. S. Whittingham proposed and began to study lithium-ion batteries. Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, preservation and use of lithium metal require very high environmental requirements. With the development of science and technology, lithium battery has become the mainstream.
Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two categories: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium and are rechargeable. The fifth generation of rechargeable battery lithium metal battery was born in 1996, its safety, specific capacity, self-discharge rate and performance ratio are better than lithium ion battery. Due to its own high technology requirements, only a few companies in a few countries are producing lithium metal batteries.
In October 2018, the research group of professor liang jiajie and professor Chen yongsheng of nankai university and the research group of lai chao of jiangsu normal university successfully prepared graphene 3d porous carrier, which can realize ultra-high speed battery charging and is expected to greatly extend the "life" of lithium batteries.
1. Higher energy. With high storage energy density, it has reached 460-600wh /kg, about 6-7 times of lead-acid battery;
2. Long service life, service life can reach more than 6 years, lithium iron phosphate is a positive electrode battery 1C (100%DOD) charge and discharge, can use 10,000 times record;
3. The rated voltage is high (single working voltage is 3.7v or 3.2v), which is about equal to the series voltage of three nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries, which is convenient to form battery power group. Lithium batteries can be used by a new type of lithium battery voltage regulator technology, the voltage to 3.0V, suitable for small appliances.
4. With high power bearing capacity, the lithium iron phosphate lithium ion battery used in electric vehicles can reach the capacity of 15-30c charge and discharge, which is convenient for high-intensity start and acceleration;
5. Self-discharge rate is very low, which is one of the most prominent advantages of the battery, generally can achieve less than 1%/ month, less than 1/20 of the nickel metal hydride battery;
6. Light weight, the weight of the same volume is about 1/6-1/5 of the lead acid product;
7. High and low temperature adaptability, can be used in the environment of -20℃- 60℃, after processing, can be used in the environment of -45℃;
8. Green environmental protection, regardless of production, use and scrap, does not contain or produce any lead, mercury, cadmium and other toxic and harmful heavy metal elements and substances.
9. Production basically does not consume water, for the lack of water in our country, very beneficial.
Specific energy refers to energy per unit of weight or volume. Specific energy is expressed in terms of Wh/kg or Wh/L. Wh is the unit of energy, W is watt, h is hour; Kg is kilogram and L is liter.